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Viola tricolor

Violales is a botanical name of an order of flowering plants and takes its name from the included family Violaceae; it was proposed by Lindley (1853).[1] The name has been used in several systems,[2] although some systems used the name Parietales for similar groupings.[3] In the 1981 version of the influential Cronquist system, order Violales was placed in subclass Dilleniidae with a circumscription consisting of the families listed below.[4] Some classifications such as that of Dahlgren placed the Violales in the superorder Violiflorae (also called Violanae).[5]

The Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (APG) system does not recognize order Violales; Violaceae is placed in order Malpighiales and the other families are reassigned to various orders as indicated.[6]



  • Cronquist, A (1981). An integrated system of classification of flowering plants. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 9780231038805.
  • Dahlgren, R. M. T. (February 1980). "A revised system of classification of the angiosperms". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 80 (2): 91–124. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.1980.tb01661.x.
  • Lindley, John (1853) [1846]. "Violales". The Vegetable Kingdom: or, The structure, classification, and uses of plants, illustrated upon the natural system (3rd. ed.). London: Bradbury & Evans. pp. 326−347.
  • Sharma, O. P. (2009) [1993]. "Violales". Plant Taxonomy (2nd ed.). Tata McGraw-Hill Education. pp. 43, 172, 249. ISBN 978-1-259-08137-8.
  • Angiosperm Phylogeny Group IV (2016). "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG IV". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 181 (1): 1–20. doi:10.1111/boj.12385.
  • Reveal, James L (27 January 1999). "pbio 450 Lecture Notes: Syllabus Spring 1999 Advanced Plant Taxonomy. Violales Perleb, 1826". Plant systematics. University of Maryland: Norton-Brown Herbarium. Retrieved 22 April 2020.