# Glenn Shafer

**Glenn Shafer** (born November 21, 1946) is an American mathematician and statistician. He is the co-creator of Dempster–Shafer theory. He is a University Professor and Board of Governors Professor at Rutgers University.

## Early life and education

[edit]Shafer grew up on a farm near Caney, Kansas. He received a bachelor's degree in mathematics from Princeton University, then entered the Peace Corps, serving in Afghanistan. He returned to Princeton, earning a PhD in mathematical statistics in 1973 under Geoffrey Watson.^{[1]}^{[2]}

## Career

[edit]He taught at Princeton and the University of Kansas, joining the faculty of Rutgers Business School – Newark and New Brunswick in 1992. From 2011 to 2014 he served as dean of the school.

During the 1970s and 1980s he expanded a theory first introduced by Arthur P. Dempster to create Dempster–Shafer theory, also described as the theory of belief functions or evidence theory. It is a general framework for reasoning with uncertainty, allowing one to combine evidence from different sources and arrive at a degree of belief (represented by a mathematical object called *belief function*) that takes into account all the available evidence.^{[3]} The theory and its extensions have been of particular interest to the artificial intelligence community.^{[4]}

More recently he worked with Vladimir Vovk to develop a game-theoretic framework for probability. That work produced a 2001 book, *Probability and Finance: It's Only a Game!* A joint research group between Rutgers and Royal Holloway, University of London has produced more than 50 working papers on the subject.^{[5]}

### Principal publications

[edit]- Shafer, Glenn,
*A Mathematical Theory of Evidence*, Princeton University Press, 1976.^{[6]} - Shafer, Glenn, and Vovk, Vladimir,
*Probability and Finance: It's Only a Game!*, John Wiley and Sons, 2001.^{[7]} - Shafer, Glenn, and Vovk, Vladimir,
*Game‐Theoretic Foundations for Probability and Finance*, John Wiley and Sons, 2019.^{[8]}

## Recognition

[edit]He is designated as a Board of Governors Professor at Rutgers. The University of Prague recognized him with an honorary doctorate. He has been a Fulbright Fellow and a Guggenheim Fellow.^{[1]} He was elected a Fellow of the Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence in 1992.^{[9]}

## Personal life

[edit]He is married to retired Princeton professor and artist Nell Irvin Painter.

## References

[edit]- ^
^{a}^{b}"Glenn Shafer".*Rutgers University*. Archived from the original on 12 June 2018. Retrieved 12 June 2018. **^**"Glenn Shafer".*The Mathematics Genealogy Project*. Archived from the original on 22 May 2022. Retrieved 13 July 2022.**^**Fine, Terrence L. (1977). "Review: Glenn Shafer,*A mathematical theory of evidence*".*Bull. Amer. Math. Soc.***83**(4): 667–672. doi:10.1090/s0002-9904-1977-14338-3. Archived from the original on 2018-06-13. Retrieved 2018-06-12.**^**Zadeh, L. A. (1984). "Review of A Mathematical Theory of Evidence (PDF)".*AI Magazine*.**5**(3). Archived from the original on 2015-10-19. Retrieved 2018-06-12.**^**"The Game-Theoretic Probability and Finance Project".*Probability and Finance*. Archived from the original on 24 June 2018. Retrieved 12 June 2018.**^**Shafer, Glenn;*A Mathematical Theory of Evidence*, Princeton University Press, 1976, ISBN 0-608-02508-9**^**Shafer, Glenn; Vovk, Vladimir (2001).*Probability and Finance: It's Only a Game!*. Wiley Series in Probability and Statistics. ISBN 978-0471402268.**^**Shafer, Glenn; Vovk, Vladimir (2019).*Game‐Theoretic Foundations for Probability and Finance*. Wiley Series in Probability and Statistics. ISBN 9780470903056.**^**"Elected AAAI Fellows".*AAAI*. Archived from the original on 2023-11-29. Retrieved 2024-01-03.

## External links

[edit]- Personal website Archived 2003-05-23 at the Wayback Machine